Float Zone Systems

They are characterized by:

  • By the takeover of Haldor Topsoe in Denmark, PVA Crystal Growing Systems GmbH has decades of experience in the field of Float Zone (FZ) system construction
  • Long-term cooperation with the technology leader in the field of high frequency generators. The selection of the appropriate generator and its adaptation to the respective FZ system is essential for an optimal performance of the system
  • Solutions adapted to each system type for critical components such as doping gas systems or recooling systems
  • PVA Crystal Growing Systems pursues continuous development in the areas of system design, automation and process development. This includes cooperations with the most renowned German research institutes
  • Higher cost efficiency and sustainability compared to competing processes

The Float Zone (FZ) technology offers the possibility to produce ultra pure silicon monocrystals with high resistivity for applications in the field of high performance electronics and semiconductor technology. Another advantage is the possibility of continuous doping from the gas phase, which enables a homogeneous resistivity distribution over the complete crystal length. As a result, the desired electrical properties can be achieved homogeneously over virtually the entire crystal. Due to the high charge carrier lifetimes and due to low degradation as a result of the extremely low oxygen content (crucible-free process), FZ crystals are also suitable for photovoltaics.

Compared to competing methods such as the Czochralski process, the FZ process offers the advantage of lower costs for consumables (no quartz crucibles to be used only once), lower energy costs, since only a small area of the crystal in the immediate vicinity of the induction coil has to be melted, and a significantly higher pulling speed. Furthermore, it is possible to increase the purity of crystals - both from silicon and from other suitable materials - significantly step by step through multiple processing.

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The Float Zone Systems at a glance

  • FZ-14 Float-Zone crystal-growing system

    The FZ-14 Float-Zone crystal-growing system is designed for the industrial production of monocrystalline Silicon crystals with a diameter of up to 100 mm (4"). Depending on the dimensions of the source rod, crystals with a length of up to 1.1 m can be pulled. The crystal diameter and height of the liquid zone during the process can be monitored using a camera. Both the upper spindle and the coil are positioned automatically. The contactless melting process—the high final vacuum generated through the use of a turbomolecular pump and ultra-pure Argon as a process atmosphere—effectively prevents contamination during the process. The system also allows Nitrogen to be introduced into the process chamber in a controlled manner.

    We offer a range of additional options such as a gas doping system for doping the crystals, a closed DI cooling water system, a shaper for the source rods, and a system for adjusting the orientation of the seed crystal.

    Overview of the product data:

    Material: Silicon

    Crystal
    Crystal pulling length: 1,100 mm
    Crystal diameter: up to 100 mm (4″)
    Final vacuum: 2.5 x 10-5 mbar
    Max. overpressure: 0.5 bar(g)
    Generator
    Output voltage: 30 kW
    Frequency: 2.4 MHz
    Upper Spindle
    Charge rate: up to 30 mm/min
    Upper rotation: up to 35 rpm
    Lower Spindle
    Pulling rate: up to 30 mm/min
    Lower rotation: up to 30 rpm
    Dimensions
    Height: 6,280 mm
    Width:    2,750 mm
    Depth: 3,000 mm
    Weight (total):    approx. 4,900 kg
  • FZ-14M(G) Float-Zone crystal-growing system

    The FZ-14M(G) Float-Zone crystal-growing system is designed for preparing samples of monocrystalline Silicon crystals for material analysis in industrial Polysilicon production. Small polycrystalline samples from the production process are inductively melted in an Argon atmosphere and crystallize on a seed crystal to form a single crystal, which then undergoes a spectrometric analysis to determine and document the quality of the Polysilicon produced. The contactless melting process—the high final vacuum generated through the use of a turbomolecular pump and ultra-pure Argon as a process atmosphere—effectively prevents contamination during the process.

    The FZ-14M(G) allows granulate to be placed under the coil and small single crystals for material analysis to be pulled with the help of a seed crystal at the upper feed in a process with the opposite pulling direction. In addition, the upper spindle can be moved in either the X or Y direction.

    Overview of the product data:

    Material: Silicon

    Crystal
    Crystal pulling length: 350 mm
    Crystal diameter: up to 25 mm
    Final vacuum: 2.5 x 10-5 mbar
    Max. overpressure: 2 bar(g)
    Generator
    Output voltage: 15 kW
    Frequency: 2.4 MHz (FZ-14M)
    Upper Spindle
    Charge rate: up to 30 mm/min
    Upper rotation: up to 30 rpm
    Lower Spindle
    Pulling rate: up to 30 mm/min
    Lower rotation: up to 30 rpm
    Dimensions
    Height: 3,000 mm
    Width:    1,020 mm
    Depth: 1,640 mm
    Footprint (total): 1,800 mm x 4,000 mm
    Weight (total):    approx. 2,500 kg
  • FZ-30 and FZ-35 Float-Zone crystal-growing systems

    The FZ-30 and FZ-35 Float-Zone crystal-growing systems are designed for the industrial production of monocrystalline Silicon crystals with a diameter of up to 200 mm (8"). Depending on the dimensions of the source rods, crystals with a length of up to 2,000 mm can be pulled. The crystal diameter and height of the liquid zone during the process can be monitored using a camera. The contactless melting process—the high final vacuum generated through the use of a turbomolecular pump and ultra-pure Argon as a process atmosphere—effectively prevents contamination during the process.

    To cultivate large crystals, an Argon atmosphere can be generated with an overpressure of up to 3 bar in the FZ-30 and up to 5 bar in the FZ-35. Both the upper spindle and the coil can be positioned automatically. In the FZ-30, the upper spindle can be moved in either the X or Y direction. Both system types also allow Nitrogen to be introduced into the process chamber in a controlled manner. We offer a range of additional options such as a gas doping system for doping the crystals, a closed DI cooling water system, a shaper for the source rods, and a system for adjusting the orientation of the seed crystal.

    Overview of the product data:

    Material: Silicon

    Crystal
    Crystal pulling length: 2,700 mm
    Crystal diameter: up to 200 mm (8")
    Final vacuum: 2.5 x 10-5 mbar
    Max. overpressure: FZ-30: 3.0 bar(g)
    FZ-35: 5.0 bar(g)
    Generator
    Output voltage: 120 kW
    Frequency: 2.4 MHz
    Upper Spindle
    Charge rate: up to 30 mm/min
    Upper rotation:    up to 30 rpm
    Lower Spindle
    Pulling rate: up to 30 mm/min
    Lower rotation: up to 30 rpm
    Dimensions
    Height: 11,550 mm
    Width: 3,800 mm
    Depth: 4,050 mm
    Footprint (total): 5,000 x 6,000 mm
    Weight (total):    approx. 14,000 kg
  • SR110 slim-rod puller

    The SR110 slim-rod puller works like a Float-Zone system. This system uses a polycrystalline Silicon rod (source rod), with a diameter of 100 mm under the high-frequency induction coil. Depending on the length of the Silicon rod, a specific number of slim rods can be generated in a multi-pulling process; these are then used as filaments in downstream Siemens processes. An isolation valve separates the receiving chamber from the process chamber, which means that the finished slim rods can be removed and the next process started immediately. The slim rods can also be doped through the introduction of process gases that diffuse into the melt.

    A modified slim-rod puller design uses two source rods with a diameter of around 50 mm, from each of which slim rods are pulled.

    Overview of the product data:

    Material: Silicon

    Slim Rod
    Length:     up to 3,200 mm
    Diameter: approx. 8 mm
    Source Rod
    Length: up to 1,000 mm
    Diameter: 100 mm (4")
    Final vacuum: 5 x 10-2 mbar
    Max. overpressure: 0.35 bar(g)

    Generator
    Output voltage: 30 kW
    Frequency: 2.8 MHz
    Upper Pulling Feed
    Pulling rate: up to 60 mm/min
    Lower Pulling Feed
    Pulling rate: up to 10 mm/min
    Rotation: up to 20 rpm

    Dimensions
    Height: 7,300 mm
    Width: 1,820 mm
    Depth: 1,250 mm
    Footprint (total): 2,500 mm x 2,800 mm
    Weight (total): approx. 6,000 kg

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PVA Crystal Growing Systems GmbH
Im Westpark 10 – 12
35435 Wettenberg

Phone: +49 (0) 641/68690-0

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PVA Crystal Growing Systems GmbH
Im Westpark 10 – 12
35435 Wettenberg

Phone: +49 (0) 641/68690-0